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How To Use This Page

This page provides links to articles, pdfs and videos that describe research practices and common traps that we all fall into. Don't be put off by the academic nature of these sources. This isn't about elitism; it's about learning skills to use as you see fit to become better informed. Some of these sources might be far too long or in-depth for you. That's fine. Others might be too basic. The goal is to understand best practices, reflect on our own bias or fallacious thinking and use it to become better critical thinkers. No one is going to do the work for you whether they be a 19th century revolutionary author or an influential YouTube creator that claims to be fighting the elite. Take control, use your head. 

Fallacious Thinking 

Master List of Logical Fallacies

 Fallacies are fake or deceptive arguments, "junk cognition," that is, arguments that seem irrefutable but prove nothing. Fallacies often seem superficially sound and they far too often retain immense persuasive power even after being clearly exposed as false. Master List of Logical Fallacies (

Fallacies are common errors in reasoning that will undermine the logic of your argument. Fallacies can be either illegitimate arguments or irrelevant points, and are often identified because they lack evidence that supports their claim. Avoid these common fallacies in your own arguments and watch for them in the arguments of others. Click here: Fallacies - Purdue OWL® - Purdue University

Conspiratorial Thinking 


Why bother with logic?  In short, it helps develop our critical thinking and challenges our own views. Correlation and False Equivalence are both included in fallacies but are just so prolific that they are worthy of viewing in context to logic. 

Logic: A free pdf introduction to logic with exercises. c01.pdf (

Correlation & Causation: This site uses math to display correlative vs. causative information but it does so mostly in the form of surveys and polls. The information can be extrapolated to non-math scenarios. Correlation and Causation | Lesson (article) | Khan Academy

False Equivalency: A paper that discusses the fallacies included in false equivalence arguments. Ex. "We condemn in the strongest possible terms this egregious display of hatred, bigotry, and violence - on many sides; on many sides." - Donald Trump (Aug. 12, 2017, in response to violence at a white nationalist rally in Charlottesville held earlier that day.) False Equivalency (



Media Literacy

Overview of what media literacy means and how to implement it: 1.8 Media Literacy – Understanding Media and Culture (


Media Literacy & Misinformation: Getting Started: Getting Started - Media Literacy & Misinformation - LibGuides at Monmouth University

Study: Digital literacy doesn’t stop the spread of misinformation: Study: Digital literacy doesn’t stop the spread of misinformation — MIT Media Lab

Research Methodology

Understanding basic concepts of research will help you conduct your own research, identify gaps in others research and understand how different types of research employ various methodologies. Below you will find some areas of research that will most likely relate to what you're interested in.  Again, it's not about being an expert or member of academia. This information is about transparency so that we can have better informed discussions or conduct our own research in an effective manner. 

Historical Research:

Home - Historical Research Method - LibGuides at Edith Cowan University

Historical research step by step:

A Step by Step Guide to Doing Historical Research (

Social Science Research:


This is a paper that claims to be "A quick, free, somewhat easy-to-read introduction to empirical social science research methods." It's 71 pages long so... the claims are subjective. However, it's a good source. If you're ever faced with a long page/pdf use ctrl+f to search for a key word.  Click here: A quick, free, somewhat easy-to-read introduction to empirical social science research methods (

If you want to write a research paper: 4. The Introduction - Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper - Research Guides at University of Southern California (

Political Science Research:

High level overviewGuide to PSCI Research - Interactive.pdf (

Getting started: Getting Started - Political Science - Research Guides at University of Michigan Library (



Tips for implementing intersectional analysis into research:

Ten Tips for Putting Intersectionality into Practice | The Opportunity Agenda

Database for examples and research:

Intersectional Research Database – CRGE (

Writing & Journalism

This section will help provide an understanding of what journalism is and what to expect from journalists. There are many self-appointed "journalists" who leverage social media for profit. It is useful for everyone to have a basic grasp of what journalism 

Helvetica Light is an easy-to-read font, with tall and narrow letters, that works well on almost every site.

Journalism Best Practices: NYU Journalism Handbook for Students - NYU Journalism

Identify Poor Journalism/Fake News:

How to Identify Fake News Tips | UND Online

High level guide:

Identifying Fake News - Hot Topics: Fake News and Misinformation - Subject Guides at University of Maine (

Misinformation and Media Bias/Evaluating News:

Misinformation and Media Bias/Evaluating News - Current Topics: An Undergraduate Research Guide - Research Guides at University of Wisconsin-Madison

General Guidelines for evaluating news sources, identifying misinformation, disinformation and avoiding propaganda:

Steps and Tools for Evaluating the News - Evaluating News Resources - Research Guides at Rutgers University

Writing Lab: A good source if you'd like to write something professionally. Welcome to the Purdue Online Writing Lab - Purdue OWL® - Purdue University

Useful Websites for Journalists:

Useful Websites for Journalists - Journalism - Research Guides at Eastern Washington University (


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